Warner notes that at her trial, Joan asked not to be pressed on what happened at Chinon, and when questioned said that Charles received a sign, of some form, to signify that her story was true. Warner points out that, contrary to popular belief, Joan was not in command of this force. Rather, the force was led by the Count of Dunois. It is the help of the King of Heaven. Even though the French now outnumbered their besiegers, their commanders were reluctant to attack the Anglo-Burgundian forces until more help arrived.
Joan pressed for an assault, and eventually an attack was launched against the most isolated of the enemy fortifications to the east. With French confidence growing, the soldiers attacked one besieging fort after another, eventually breaking the siege of the city. Nash-Marshall points out that the morale boost Joan gave cannot be underestimated.
More often than not, they simply preferred to stay off the battlefield. French kings were crowned at Reims, a city that at the time was under control of the Anglo-Burgundians.
Despite it being behind enemy lines, Joan begged Charles to go, and the king eventually set off with a party that encountered surprisingly little resistance, actually gaining the support of several towns held by the enemy on the way. When they arrived in Reims, they held the ceremony as quickly as possible, with Charles being knighted, anointed and crowned as best as could be done under the circumstances.
Joan, along with other commanders, pushed for this, but the king was hesitant. Nash-Marshall pointed out that the king actually agreed to a day truce with his enemies, a mere ruse, as it turned out, to give them time to fortify Paris.
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When the attack on Paris finally happened, the king was hesitant to commit the bulk of his forces to it and it ultimately failed. Furthermore, it happened on Sept. The king made a truce with the Burgundians, the allies of the English, which was to last until Christmas. Furthermore, before winter set in, Charles VII disbanded his army. On Dec. Without the backing of the king, Joan was unable to launch any more major attacks.
On May 23 one of these attacks failed, the enemy having sufficient warning to give chase to her much smaller force. Although most of her soldiers managed to escape back to the town walls, Joan herself was captured by troops loyal to John, the Duke of Luxembourg.
This marked the end of her military career and the beginning of her captivity. When Joan learned she was to be turned over to the English, she threw herself off a tower, apparently in an attempt to commit suicide. She survived her attempt and was brought to Rouen to face trial.
Trial of Condemnation | Joan of Arc | clasesitinun.ml
The verdict was never in doubt. She said also that it was altogether necessary to change her women's clothes for men's. She believed that her counsel said well. She said that she sent to the English at Orleans letters telling them to depart, as shown in the copy of the letters which had been read to her in this town of Rouen, except two or three words in the copy: for example, where in this copy it read Surrender to the Maid it should read Surrender to the King.
There are also these words, body for body and chieftain of war, which were not in the original letters. After this the said Jeanne told that she went without hindrance to him whom she calls her king. And when she had arrived at Ste. Catherine de Fierbois, then she sent first to Chinon, where he who she calls her king was. She reached Chinon towards noon and lodged at an inn; and after dinner she went to him whom she calls king, who was at the castle.
She said that when she entered her king's room she recognized him among many others by the counsel of her voice, which revealed him to her. She told him she wanted to make war on the English. Asked whether, when the voice showed her her king, there was no light, she answered: "Pass on to the next question. Asked what revelations and apparitions the king had, she answered: "I will not tell you.
It is not now the time to tell you; but send to the king and he will tell you.
Then Jeanne said that her voice had promised her that as soon as she should come to the king he would receive her. She said also that those of her party knew well that the voice was sent to Jeanne from God, and they saw and knew this. She said further that her king and several others heard and saw the voices which came to the said Jeanne; and there were present Charles de Bourbon, and two or three others. Then Jeanne said that there is not a day when she does not hear this voice; and she has much need of it. She said she never asked of it any final reward but the salvation of her soul. The voice told her to remain at Saint-Denis in France, and the said Jeanne wished to remain; but against her will the lords took her away.
However, if she had not been wounded, she would not have left; she was wounded in the trenches before Paris, after she left Saint-Denis; but recovered in five days. Further she confessed that she caused an assault to be made before Paris.
And when she was asked if that day were a feast day, she answered she thought it certainly was. Asked if she thought it was a good thing to do, she answered: "Pass on. On the following Saturday, February 24th, we the said bishop repaired to the same room in the castle of Rouen where Jeanne appeared in judgment before us in the presence on many reverend fathers, doctors and masters, namely: Gilles, abbot of Ste.
Ouen, of St. We first of all required the aforementioned Jeanne to speak the simple and absolute truth on the questions put to her, and to make no reservation to her oath; and we thrice admonished her to do this. The said Jeanne answered: "Give me Leave to speak" and then said: "By my faith, you could ask me things such as I would not answer. Moreover, asked if she would swear, simply and absolutely, she answered: "You may well do without it!
I have sworn enough, twice"; adding that all the clergy of Rouen and Paris could not condemn her, but by law. She said that of her coming to France she would willingly speak the truth, but not the whole truth; and a week would not be enough for that. But we, the aforementioned bishop, told her to take the advice of the assessors, whether or not she should swear.
To that she replied that of her coming she would willingly speak the truth, and not otherwise; and that we must not speak of it to her any more. We said that she lay herself open to suspicion if she would not swear to speak the truth. She replied in the same way as. Again we required her to swear, precisely and absolutely. Then she answered that she would willingly say what she knew, but not all. She said also that she came from God, and that there is nothing for her to do here, and asked to be sent back to God, from whom she came.
Required and admonished to swear, under pain of being charged with what was imputed to her, she answered: "Continue. A last time we required her to swear, and urgently admonished her to speak the truth in matters concerning the trial, telling her she exposed herself to great danger by her refusal. Then she answered: "I am ready to swear to speak the truth of what I know concerning the trial.
She answered that since yesterday noon she had not taken either. Asked when she had heard the voice come to her, she answered: "I heard it yesterday and to-day. Asked at what hour yesterday she had heard this voice, she answered that she had heard it three times: once in the morning, once at vespers, and once when the Ave Maria was rung in the evening.
And often she heard it more frequently than she said.
Asked what she was doing yesterday morning when the voice came to her, she said she was sleeping and the Voice awakened her. Asked if the voice woke her by touching her on the arm, she answered that it was without touching her. Asked if the voice was actually in the room, she said she did not know, but it was in the castle. Whereupon the voice told her to answer boldly. Asked what the voice had said when she was awakened, she answered that she asked the voice to counsel her in her replies, telling the voice to beseech therein the counsel of Our Lord.
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And the voice told her to answer boldly and God would comfort her. Asked if it had not spoken certain words to her before she questioned it, she replied that the voice spoke certain words, but she did not understand them all. However, when she awakened from her sleep, the voice told her to answer boldly. Then she said to us, the aforementioned bishop: "You say that you are my judge; take good heed of what you do, because, in truth, I am sent by God, and you put yourself in great peril," in French 'en grant dangier.
She said also that that night she had heard it tell her to answer boldly. Asked whether the voice had forbidden her to answer everything she was asked, she said: I will not answer you that. I have revelations concerning the king which I shall not tell you. Asked if the voice had forbidden her to tell of the revelations, she answered: "I have not been advised upon that. Give me a fortnight and I will answer you. Asked again if that had been forbidden her [by the voice], she replied: "Believe me, it was not men who forbade me. She said she firmly believes, as firmly as she believes in the Christian faith and that the Lord redeemed us from the pains of hell, that this voice comes from God, and by His command.
Asked whether this voice, which she says appears to her, comes as an angel, or directly from God, or whether it is the voice of one of the saints, she answered: "This voice comes from God; I believe I do not tell you everything about it; and I am more afraid of failing the voices by saying what is displeasing to them, than of answering you.
Saint Joan of Arc's Trials
For this question, I beseech you to grant me a delay. Asked if she believes it displeasing to God to speak the truth, she answered: "My voices told me to say certain things to the king, and not to you. For, as she said, he would eat the more happily for it. Asked if she could not so influence the voice that it would obey her and take news to her king: she answered she did not know whether the voice would obey her, unless it were God's will, and God consented thereto.
Asked why this voice no longer speaks with the king, as it did when Jeanne was in his presence, she answered that she did not know, if it were not the will of God. And she added that but for the will of God she could do nothing. Asked if her counsel revealed to her that she should escape from prison, she answered: "Must I tell you that?
Asked whether that night the voice had not counseled and advised her upon what she should reply, she said that if the voice revealed such things she did not understand them.