Therefore, these fuels will not be mentioned scrutinized here. As seen in the Figure 3: Consumption by fuel, consumption patter of Japan is changing over time. The domestic coal production 1. Most gas-fired electricity generating units are multi-fired, and they can switch to crude or heating oil.
Nonetheless, previously negotiated long-term supply contracts are being renegotiated for shorter periods, which could bring more flexibility for Japan as the biggest LNG market player. More future oriented are recent underwater surveys of methane hydrates at the Pacific coast, according to some experts there is enough methane hydrates to suffice needs of Japan for a century.
(PDF) Primary energy import dependence: case study of Japan | Andrej Nosko - clasesitinun.ml
However, currently there is neither commercial experience nor technology available to tap this resource. However, there are major regional implications that will be discussed in section 3. It has been active in overseas operations via state established Japan National Oil Company JNOC , which supported Japanese prospecting in overseas oil producing regions.
However, this is a long-term goal and currently as a substitutive solution, stockpiling is promoted. In Asia, only Japan and Korea has government stockpiling capacity. Taiwan, Thailand and Philippines have obligation for companies, while China and India are preparing their stockpiling capacities.
This fact is extremely important for the regional situation in securing uninterrupted oil supply, however it will be dealt into more extent in the Section 4. Regional implications of Japanese overseas activities, including oil exploration as well as refining will be further discussed in section 3. Besides imported fuel, Japan also has reprocessing agreements with France and UK, to which it ships its nuclear waste for reprocessing, after which it receives Plutonium and glassified high-level radioactive waste back.
In addition, Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd. Japan Nuclear operates reprocessing capacity of tons per year , uranium concentration, and low-level disposal storage plants at Rokkasho Village in Aomori prefecture full operation expected in as well as reprocessing plant in Tokai village commissioned in Japan originally promoted complete fuel cycle by using uranium and oxide mixtures MOX in fast breeder reactors, thus maintaining complete independence from import of uranium.
However due to long periods of low cost uranium and extremely costly operations of nuclear fuel cycle, this concept was changed and MOX was proposed for use in thermal light water reactors LWR. Another concern about nuclear generated electricity is the average availability, which depends on the average time that is needed for planned as well as unexpected inspections.
Besides securing supply through reprocessing of fuel and diversification of reactors, Japan also has significant emergency supplies of fuel. According to some estimates, Japan holds fuel supplies for approximately for two to three years of consumption. Besides economic concerns, nuclear energy is under scrutiny by international community, as well as domestic environmental concerns and wide public fear primarily since Tokai village accident, and recent falsifications in documents.
Japan, as a mountainous country with high seismic activity has a limited number of spatial options where to build nuclear reactors.
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Concern with cooling is also significant, because 22 Information on the number of MOX operated plants is inconsistent, ranging between 16 to 18 according to source. PDF Accessed on 30 November With these concerns, possibility of further extensive use of nuclear energy, under current price and technology levels, as viable substitute is hindered. In order to highlight important patterns, regional import relations will be discussed in the corresponding pattern as fuel types.
It can be also observed, that over time amount of imported coal from Australia, China, and Indonesia is steadily increasing, while amount of coal imported from Canada, United States and Russia is decreasing. Nonetheless, import distribution of coal does not pose any risk as far as country of origin is concerned. LNG is currently safest fuel type available for Japan.
Supply disruption was already experienced from Arun. In addition to these, Japan is also considering importing natural gas through pipeline, as well as LNG, from Russian Far East Sakhalin , import from Sakhalin area should further diversify import sources and according to METI, it should exert downward pressure on the LNG prices,26 which create the highest concern for Japanese economy. As demonstrated by Figure 8: Inter-area movements of Oil; Japan, similarly to other Asian countries, is heavily dependent on oil imports from Middle East.
Japanese companies are also concentrating on equity shares in Caspian region. Japan promotes a project of pipeline from Anagarsk in Siberia to an export terminal on the Pacific coast at Nakhodka over an alternative route that would transport oil from Anagarsk to Daqing in China. So far the situation is that, Russia has committed to build a pipeline to a point near the Russian- Chinese border, thus leaving both options open.
Japan is in possession of significant strategic stockpiles of uranium31 and should it once need, it possesses technology as well as experience for further reprocessing, thus maintaining the option of at least nuclear energy independence.
Energy Policies of i e a Countries Japan 2016
Much higher concern for the security of supply poses international political situation, and proliferation concerns as well as already mentioned domestic environmental concerns. Through out this paper, energy security was given prime position. This will be done by analyzing interaction between supply and demand sides of energy in Japan, as this perspective offers much better explanatory power for the dynamics of the interplay originating in the systemic-idiosyncratic interaction of primary energy import dependence, that Japan faces.
In other words, energy security understood in terms of security of energy supply is aimed at assuring that there is at all times enough energy supply, at reasonable prices. Means for assuring, security of energy supply can be differentiated in terms of time, within they can be credibly achieved, into short-term and long-term. Short-term risks can be mitigated through stockpiling of primary energy supplies, through engaging with the suppliers resource diplomacy and finally through market pricing, which assures that physical supply is not hindered, although it usually cannot prevent from price volatility.
Based on the previous chapter, in congruence with common recommendations from IEA 34 , it is possible to identify following security foci of energy imports: excessive import dependence on oil from Middle East, relatively high dependence on single supply locations of LNG from Indonesia, transport vulnerability based on limited sea-routes, and international concerns for proliferation of nuclear technology.
Regional dependence on Middle East is being faced by diversification of fuel mix in favor of nuclear and LNG. Nonetheless, it is important to mention that ratio of Middle Eastern oil has increased in the past decade, but this can be attributed to the already mentioned change in the oil paradigm, in addition, this change was mitigated by overall decrease of oil in the primary energy mix of Japan in favor of LNG and nuclear. Short-term risks originating in transport vulnerability or supply disruptions caused by accidents, regional or short-term sector volatility are mitigated primarily through already 32 Hiroyuki Ishida, presentation at Energy Security in Central Europe and Asia Symposium, July 29, , Tokyo presentation notes available from author.
From the long-term perspective, Japan is promoting resource diplomacy in Middle East and recently also in Caspian region as well as in Russian Far East, in order to diversify away from Middle East. However, in the long-term perspective, one of the most important viable means of securing Asian primary energy supplies is, as pointed out by senior analyst of Energy and Environment program of International Development Center of Japan Shigeru Sudo, in establishing joint strategic oil reserves.
Security of supply is also being addressed through promotion of overseas operations, as were mentioned in the respective sections , through promotion of regional cooperation of Asian countries not only in terms of energy imports and thus increasing of bargaining position with suppliers, but also in terms of trade, and possibly even military cooperation. The misleading projections has perpetuated the false impression that the growth of solar power requires huge subsidies, and has the potential to discourage investment in solar energy market and consequently, hold back even faster growth.
IEA Bioenergy was set up in by the International Energy Agency IEA with the aim of improving cooperation and information exchange between countries that have national programmes in bioenergy research, development and deployment. The International Energy Agency acts as energy policy advisor to 29 Member Countries plus the European Commission, in their effort to ensure reliable, affordable, and clean energy for their citizens.
As energy markets have changed, so has the IEA. Current work focuses on climate change policies , market reform, energy technology collaboration and outreach to the rest of the world, especially major producers and consumers of energy like China, India, Russia and the OPEC countries. Activities are set up under Implementing Agreements.
These are independent bodies operating in a framework provided by the IEA. The work of IEA Bioenergy is structured in a number of Tasks, which have well defined objectives, budgets, and time frames. The collaboration which earlier was focused on Research, Development and Demonstration is now increasingly also emphasising Deployment on a large-scale and worldwide. Each participating country pays a modest financial contribution toward administrative requirements, shares the costs of managing the Tasks and provides in-kind contributions to fund participation of national personnel in the Tasks.
The scope of the work undertaken within IEA Bioenergy is shown in the graphic. Each Task is led by one of the participating countries Operating Agent with technical effort co-ordinated by a Task Leader.
The work is directed by the Executive Committee. For the period , there are 10 Tasks. All of the Tasks have a common duration of three years. In November , an IEA report entitled Deploying Renewables said "renewable energy technology is becoming increasingly cost competitive and growth rates are in line to meet levels required of a sustainable energy future".
The report also said "subsidies in green energy technologies that were not yet competitive are justified in order to give an incentive to investing into technologies with clear environmental and energy security benefits". The renewable electricity sector has "grown rapidly in the past five years and now provides nearly 20 percent of the world's power generation", the IEA said. These advantages are global. Hence the additional costs of the incentives for early deployment should be considered learning investments; they must be wisely spent and need to be widely shared".
For the first time in , an annual medium-term report which analyses the renewable energy sector will be published by the IEA. This publication on renewable energy — "which is now the fastest growing sector of the energy mix and accounts for almost a fifth of all electricity produced worldwide — will join annual medium-term reports on oil, gas and coal, which the IEA already produces". With this report, "renewable energy takes its rightful seat at the table alongside the other major energy sources". The IEA's Energy Conservation through Energy Storage ECES Programme   has completed 20 developmental annexes covering seasonal thermal energy storage as sensible heat or cold , as well as storage of thermal energy sensible, latent, thermochemical and electrical energy.
The ECES programme has held triennial global energy conferences since The conferences originally focused exclusively on STES, but now that those technologies are mature and other kinds of energy storage technology are now also included.
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Since each conference has had "stock" for storage at the end of its name; e. Ecostock, Thermastock.